POSTFIX(1)                                                          POSTFIX(1)

       postfix - Postfix control program

       postfix [-Dv] [-c config_dir] command

       This  command  is  reserved  for the superuser. To submit mail, use the
       Postfix sendmail(1) command.

       The postfix(1) command controls the operation of the Postfix mail  sys-
       tem:  start  or stop the master(8) daemon, do a health check, and other

       By default, the postfix(1) command sets up a  standardized  environment
       and runs the postfix-script shell script to do the actual work.

       However,  when  support  for  multiple Postfix instances is configured,
       postfix(1) executes the command specified with the multi_instance_wrap-
       per configuration parameter.  This command will execute the command for
       each applicable Postfix instance.

       The following commands are implemented:

       check  Warn about bad directory/file ownership or permissions, and cre-
              ate missing directories.

       start  Start  the Postfix mail system. This also runs the configuration
              check described above.

              Like start, but keep the master  daemon  running  in  the  fore-
              ground.  This  requires  that multi-instance support is disabled
              (i.e. the multi_instance_directories  parameter  value  must  be
              empty).  When running Postfix inside a container, mount the con-
              tainer host's /dev/log socket  inside  the  container  (example:
              "docker  run  -v /dev/log:/dev/log ...")  and specify a distinct
              Postfix "syslog_name" prefix that identifies  logging  from  the
              Postfix instance.

       stop   Stop the Postfix mail system in an orderly fashion. If possible,
              running processes are allowed to  terminate  at  their  earliest

              Note:  in  order to refresh the Postfix mail system after a con-
              figuration change, do not use the start  and  stop  commands  in
              succession. Use the reload command instead.

       abort  Stop  the  Postfix  mail  system abruptly. Running processes are
              signaled to stop immediately.

       flush  Force delivery: attempt to deliver every message in the deferred
              mail queue. Normally, attempts to deliver delayed mail happen at
              regular intervals,  the  interval  doubling  after  each  failed

              Warning:  flushing  undeliverable mail frequently will result in
              poor delivery performance of all other mail.

       reload Re-read configuration  files.  Running  processes  terminate  at
              their earliest convenience.

       status Indicate if the Postfix mail system is currently running.

       set-permissions [name=value ...]
              Set  the  ownership and permissions of Postfix related files and
              directories, as specified in the postfix-files file.

              Specify name=value to override and update specific  con-
              figuration  parameters.  Use  this,  for  example, to change the
              mail_owner or setgid_group  setting  for  an  already  installed
              Postfix system.

              This  feature is available in Postfix 2.1 and later.  With Post-
              fix  2.0  and   earlier,   use   "$config_directory/post-install

       tls subcommand
              Enable  opportunistic  TLS in the Postfix SMTP client or server,
              and manage Postfix SMTP server TLS  private  keys  and  certifi-
              cates.  See postfix-tls(1) for documentation.

              This feature is available in Postfix 3.1 and later.

       upgrade-configuration [name=value ...]
              Update  the  and files with information that
              Postfix needs in order to run: add or update services,  and  add
              or update configuration parameter settings.

              Specify  name=value to override and update specific con-
              figuration parameters.

              This feature is available in Postfix 2.1 and later.  With  Post-
              fix   2.0   and   earlier,  use  "$config_directory/post-install

       The following options are implemented:

       -c config_dir
              Read the and configuration files in the  named
              directory  instead  of the default configuration directory.  Use
              this to distinguish between multiple Postfix  instances  on  the
              same host.

              With  Postfix  2.6  and later, this option forces the postfix(1)
              command to operate on the specified Postfix instance only.  This
              behavior  is  inherited  by  postfix(1)  commands  that run as a
              descendant of the current process.

       -D (with postfix start only)
              Run each Postfix daemon under control of a debugger as specified
              via the debugger_command configuration parameter.

       -v     Enable  verbose  logging  for  debugging  purposes.  Multiple -v
              options make the software increasingly verbose.

       The postfix(1) command  exports  the  following  environment  variables
       before executing the postfix-script file:

              This is set when the -c command-line option is present.

              With Postfix 2.6 and later, this environment variable forces the
              postfix(1) command to operate on the specified Postfix  instance
              only.   This  behavior  is inherited by postfix(1) commands that
              run as a descendant of the current process.

              This is set when the -v command-line option is present.

              This is set when the -D command-line option is present.

       The following configuration parameters are exported as environ-
       ment variables with the same names:

       config_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The  default  location of the Postfix and con-
              figuration files.

       command_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The location of all postfix administrative commands.

       daemon_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The directory with Postfix support programs and daemon programs.

       html_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The  location  of Postfix HTML files that describe how to build,
              configure or operate a specific Postfix subsystem or feature.

       mail_owner (postfix)
              The UNIX system account that owns the  Postfix  queue  and  most
              Postfix daemon processes.

       mailq_path (see 'postconf -d' output)
              Sendmail  compatibility feature that specifies where the Postfix
              mailq(1) command is installed.

       manpage_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              Where the Postfix manual pages are installed.

       newaliases_path (see 'postconf -d' output)
              Sendmail compatibility feature that specifies  the  location  of
              the newaliases(1) command.

       queue_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The location of the Postfix top-level queue directory.

       readme_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The location of Postfix README files that describe how to build,
              configure or operate a specific Postfix subsystem or feature.

       sendmail_path (see 'postconf -d' output)
              A Sendmail compatibility feature that specifies the location  of
              the Postfix sendmail(1) command.

       setgid_group (postdrop)
              The   group   ownership  of  set-gid  Postfix  commands  and  of
              group-writable Postfix directories.

       Available in Postfix version 2.5 and later:

       data_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The directory with Postfix-writable  data  files  (for  example:
              caches, pseudo-random numbers).

       Available in Postfix version 3.0 and later:

       meta_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The  location of non-executable files that are shared among mul-
              tiple Postfix instances, such as postfix-files,,
              and  the  multi-instance  template  files and mas-

       shlib_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The location of Postfix dynamically-linked  libraries  (libpost-
              fix-*.so),  and the default location of Postfix database plugins
              (postfix-*.so) that have  a  relative  pathname  in  the  dynam-

       Available in Postfix version 3.1 and later:

       openssl_path (openssl)
              The location of the OpenSSL command line program openssl(1).

       Other configuration parameters:

       import_environment (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The  list  of  environment  parameters that a privileged Postfix
              process will  import  from  a  non-Postfix  parent  process,  or
              name=value environment overrides.

       syslog_facility (mail)
              The syslog facility of Postfix logging.

       syslog_name (see 'postconf -d' output)
              A  prefix  that  is  prepended  to  the  process  name in syslog
              records, so that, for example, "smtpd" becomes "prefix/smtpd".

       Available in Postfix version 2.6 and later:

       multi_instance_directories (empty)
              An optional list of non-default Postfix  configuration  directo-
              ries;  these  directories belong to additional Postfix instances
              that share the Postfix executable files and  documentation  with
              the  default  Postfix  instance,  and that are started, stopped,
              etc., together with the default Postfix instance.

       multi_instance_wrapper (empty)
              The pathname of a multi-instance manager command that the  post-
              fix(1)   command  invokes  when  the  multi_instance_directories
              parameter value is non-empty.

       multi_instance_group (empty)
              The optional instance group name of this Postfix instance.

       multi_instance_name (empty)
              The optional instance name of this Postfix instance.

       multi_instance_enable (no)
              Allow this Postfix instance to be started, stopped, etc.,  by  a
              multi-instance manager.

       Prior  to Postfix version 2.6, all of the following files were in $con-
       fig_directory. Some files are now in $daemon_directory so that they can
       be shared among multiple instances that run the same Postfix version.

       Use  the command "postconf config_directory" or "postconf daemon_direc-
       tory" to expand the names into their actual values.

       $config_directory/, Postfix configuration parameters
       $config_directory/, Postfix daemon processes
       $daemon_directory/postfix-files, file/directory permissions
       $daemon_directory/postfix-script, administrative commands
       $daemon_directory/post-install, post-installation configuration
       $daemon_directory/, plug-in database clients

       postalias(1), create/update/query alias database
       postcat(1), examine Postfix queue file
       postconf(1), Postfix configuration utility
       postfix(1), Postfix control program
       postfix-tls(1), Postfix TLS management
       postkick(1), trigger Postfix daemon
       postlock(1), Postfix-compatible locking
       postlog(1), Postfix-compatible logging
       postmap(1), Postfix lookup table manager
       postmulti(1), Postfix multi-instance manager
       postqueue(1), Postfix mail queue control
       postsuper(1), Postfix housekeeping
       mailq(1), Sendmail compatibility interface
       newaliases(1), Sendmail compatibility interface
       sendmail(1), Sendmail compatibility interface

       Postfix configuration:
       bounce(5), Postfix bounce message templates
       master(5), Postfix file syntax
       postconf(5), Postfix file syntax
       postfix-wrapper(5), Postfix multi-instance API

       Table-driven mechanisms:
       access(5), Postfix SMTP access control table
       aliases(5), Postfix alias database
       canonical(5), Postfix input address rewriting
       generic(5), Postfix output address rewriting
       header_checks(5), body_checks(5), Postfix content inspection
       relocated(5), Users that have moved
       transport(5), Postfix routing table
       virtual(5), Postfix virtual aliasing

       Table lookup mechanisms:
       cidr_table(5), Associate CIDR pattern with value
       ldap_table(5), Postfix LDAP client
       lmdb_table(5), Postfix LMDB database driver
       memcache_table(5), Postfix memcache client
       mysql_table(5), Postfix MYSQL client
       nisplus_table(5), Postfix NIS+ client
       pcre_table(5), Associate PCRE pattern with value
       pgsql_table(5), Postfix PostgreSQL client
       regexp_table(5), Associate POSIX regexp pattern with value
       socketmap_table(5), Postfix socketmap client
       sqlite_table(5), Postfix SQLite database driver
       tcp_table(5), Postfix client-server table lookup

       Daemon processes:
       anvil(8), Postfix connection/rate limiting
       bounce(8), defer(8), trace(8), Delivery status reports
       cleanup(8), canonicalize and enqueue message
       discard(8), Postfix discard delivery agent
       dnsblog(8), DNS black/whitelist logger
       error(8), Postfix error delivery agent
       flush(8), Postfix fast ETRN service
       local(8), Postfix local delivery agent
       master(8), Postfix master daemon
       oqmgr(8), old Postfix queue manager
       pickup(8), Postfix local mail pickup
       pipe(8), deliver mail to non-Postfix command
       postscreen(8), Postfix zombie blocker
       proxymap(8), Postfix lookup table proxy server
       qmgr(8), Postfix queue manager
       qmqpd(8), Postfix QMQP server
       scache(8), Postfix connection cache manager
       showq(8), list Postfix mail queue
       smtp(8), lmtp(8), Postfix SMTP+LMTP client
       smtpd(8), Postfix SMTP server
       spawn(8), run non-Postfix server
       tlsmgr(8), Postfix TLS cache and randomness manager
       tlsproxy(8), Postfix TLS proxy server
       trivial-rewrite(8), Postfix address rewriting
       verify(8), Postfix address verification
       virtual(8), Postfix virtual delivery agent

       syslogd(8), system logging

       OVERVIEW, overview of Postfix commands and processes
       BASIC_CONFIGURATION_README, Postfix basic configuration
       ADDRESS_REWRITING_README, Postfix address rewriting
       SMTPD_ACCESS_README, SMTP relay/access control
       CONTENT_INSPECTION_README, Postfix content inspection
       QSHAPE_README, Postfix queue analysis

       The Secure Mailer license must be distributed with this software.

       Wietse Venema
       IBM T.J. Watson Research
       P.O. Box 704
       Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USA

       Wietse Venema
       Google, Inc.
       111 8th Avenue
       New York, NY 10011, USA

       TLS support by:
       Lutz Jaenicke
       Brandenburg University of Technology
       Cottbus, Germany

       Victor Duchovni
       Morgan Stanley

       SASL support originally by:
       Till Franke
       SuSE Rhein/Main AG
       65760 Eschborn, Germany

       LMTP support originally by:
       Philip A. Prindeville
       Mirapoint, Inc.

       Amos Gouaux
       University of Texas at Dallas
       P.O. Box 830688, MC34
       Richardson, TX 75083, USA

       IPv6 support originally by:
       Mark Huizer, Eindhoven University, The Netherlands
       Jun-ichiro 'itojun' Hagino, KAME project, Japan
       The Linux PLD project
       Dean Strik, Eindhoven University, The Netherlands